Manufacturing journalist, Thomas R. Cutler, authored a featured article titled, Distributors should look to digital Kanban in the July issue of Industrial Distribution. According to Cutler, Distributors must continually innovate to maximize productivity and reduce total costs. Initiatives of process improvement and waste reduction can result in cost-saving efficiency. Productivity is output, efficiency and production. Waste is identified in many ways, yet ultimately it is any activity that requires allocated resources but adds no value from the customers perspective. Some activities, while not directly adding value to a product or process (such as time spent on equipment maintenance or an accounting function) are necessary and must be perpetuated. But non-value-added activities must be constantly reevaluated and, if necessary, identified as waste and eliminated.